Rwanda was contaminated with landmines and Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) as a result of the 1990–1994 war and from the retreat of the army and Interahamwe militias into neighbouring countries, and their subsequent attacks launched from the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1996 to 1998. In a 2002–2003 assessment, four of the 12 former provinces reported a mine threat.
NPA provided support, from its South Sudan Humanitarian Disarmamment programme to Rwanda in 2008. By the end of November 2008, the National Demining Office (NDO), with support from NPA, had finished most clearance.
In December 2009, Rwanda declared itself in compliance with its MBT Article 5 clearance obligations.