Mines and Explosive Remnants of War
In 2013, recorded casualties caused by mines, victim activated improvised explosive devices, cluster munition remnants, and other ERW decreased to the lowest level since the Landmine Monitor started recording casualties in 1999. In 2013, a global total of 3,308 casualties were recorded, a 24% decline compared with the total of 4,325 in 2012. Although down 26% in absolute numbers, the vast majority of recorded landmine/ERW casualties (79%) were civilians. In 2013, child casualties accounted for 46% of all civilian casualties where the age was known, up seven percentage points from the 39% of recorded casualties for 2012; female casualties remained 12% of all casualties where the sex was known.
Nevertheless, the global casualty total was the lowest ever recorded since 1999, with approximately 10 casualties reported per day. A decade ago there were at least 25 casualties per day. The Mine Ban Treaty ( MBT) has been the driving impetus behind this drastic reduction in human suffering, and has almost eliminated the laying of new mines. The Convention on Cluster Munitions ( CCM ) too has rapidly gained momentum and built a strong norm against the use of cluster munitions. Landmine accidents, nevertheless, continue to occur and more than 7 million landmines are believed to remain on the ground.
NPA has tiredlessly, since 1992, worked to rid the world of landmines, CMR, and other ERW.
According to the Mine Ban Treaty, an antipersonnel mine “means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons."
Made of plastic, metal or other materials, they contain explosives and sometimes pieces of metal or other objects meant to cause additional injury. They can be activated by direct pressure from above, by pressure put on a wire or filament attached to a pull switch, or even simply by the proximity of a person within a predetermined distance. (Source: International Campaign to Ban Landmines)
Explosice Remnants of War:
According to the Landmine Monitor, explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive munitions left behind after a conflict has ended. They include unexploded artillery shells, grenades, mortars, rockets, air-dropped bombs, and cluster munitions. Under the international legal definition, ERW consist of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO), but not mines.
Cluster Munition Remnants (CMR):
Cluster munition refers to a conventional munition that is designed to disperse or release explosive sub-munitions each weighing less than 20 kilograms. (Source: www.mineactionstandards.org )