During the period from 1960 to 1990, liberation movements and various other groups established military camps throughout Zambia. Although conventional minefields were not laid in Zambia, mines, and other items of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) were left around military camps, roads, and border crossings where combat between rebels and armies from neighbouring countries were taking place.
NPA, in 2008-2009, conducted a mine mapping survey in Zambia. All previously known mine contaminated areas had been cleared by the Zambian army.
Based on the results of the NPA survey, which indicated that Zambia was no longer contaminated with antipersonnel mines or anti-tank mines, the national authorities declared that Zambia had fulfilled its obligations under Article 5 of the MBT. Furthermore, with assistance from NPA, Zambia was also able to meet its Article 4 obligations of the CCM.