Mine and ERW contamination in Ethiopia stems from a series of internal and international armed conflicts, including the Ogaden war between Ethiopia and Somalia (1977-1978), and the Ethiopian-Eritrean war (1998-2000).
NPA was first involved as the implementer of the 2003–2004 Ethiopia Land Impact Survey (ELIS) conducted with the national authority. NPA later became directly involved with capacity development initiatives, which resulted in the introduction of Mine Detection Dogs (MDD) and specialised Technical Survey teams. In October 2011, the Government of Ethiopia announced that The Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO) would be under review for disbandment in 2012 and NPA phased out its support project to EMAO when this was confirmed. The NPA Humanitarian Disarmament Programme Ethiopia closure was effectively completed by 31 September 2012. The government’s decision was based on the viewpoint that EMAO had fulfilled its mandate to a sufficient standard where it is no longer required to remain as an institution, and that any residual risk and areas remaining to be cleared would be more cost effectively dealt with by the Ethiopian Ministry of National Defence.