NPA Country Programme
In comparison with the quantity of unexploded ordnance (UXOs) and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXOs) found, landmines are rare in DRC. Landmines have not been used following typical military doctrine with tactic minefields but in a more random fashion with only one or few mines in most areas.
Cluster munition (CM) has been used during the conflicts in DRC and the presence of CM has been reported in the provinces of Katanga (around Kabalo), Maniema (around Kindu), Tshopo (around Kisangani) and Equateur (around Bolomba), which was cleared by NPA in April 2017 as the last known CM-contaminated area in country. According to UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), two types of cluster munitions have been reported to date, namely BL 755 and PM-1. The scale of residual contamination from unexploded submunitions still needs to be quantified.
ERW are much more common than mines in the DRC. Often SHAs suspected and reported to contain mines do not contain mines but rather UXOs and AXO (commonly reported as ERW). These are often buried and requires subsurface detection and excavation prior to removal and destruction. AXO is comparably more common than UXO and constitute a country-wide problem with new contamination since November 2013 when the national army and the UN peacekeeping mission (MONUSCO) forced the armed group of M23 to retreat, leaving behind large quantities of AXO in North Kivu.